Monday, May 25, 2020
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"There is a way that seemeth right unto man, but the end thereof are the ways of death.Ã¢â¬ (The Bible, Prov. 16:25). Thoughts that come to men stem from their participation in society or their natural state of good and evil. However, societyÃ¢â¬â¢s morals mask the natural manÃ¢â¬âwho is more vulnerable to natural evil than good. Because of this, every man is susceptible to ignorance and savagery. William Golding exemplifies this idea in his novel Lord of the Flies. When a group of military boys find themselves stranded on a deserted island, their ignorance soon leads to the inevitable savagery present in the end of the novel. The maturation process of Ralph illustrates the fight between manÃ¢â¬â¢s tendencies of natural evil and natural good when moralsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦At the time, Ralph heavily influences the boys and their actions for he resembles Ã¢â¬Å"the men with the megaphonesÃ¢â¬ (18). He attempts to create order among the boys with rules, but most of the boys would rather play than follow the rulesÃ¢â¬âfor there are no adults to enforce them. With the role of leadership thrust upon him, Ralph has no choice but to stop playing games. His goals are to protect the boys and increase their chances of being rescued; however, the responsibility on RalphÃ¢â¬â¢s shoulders soon begins to weigh him down. As Ã¢â¬Å"Ralph [watches the boys], envious and resentfulÃ¢â¬ (75), the obligation to care for everyone on the island is a heavy burden to bear. His role as leader has forced Ralph to forget the joys of being an innocent kid and given him the encumbrance of responsibility, which causes the start of his maturation. As the order on the island begins to break down, Ralph tightly holds onto the idea of rescue. On the island, every responsibility is on his shoulders and will be until they leave. As he ponders his feelings, Ã¢â¬Å"he [loses] himself in a maze of thoughts that were rendered vague by his lack of words to express themÃ¢â¬ (76). Daydreaming about home expresses his longing for civilized life and comfort; remaining in a state of innocence. However, he has matured a great deal since the beginning of the novel. As the leader, Ralph is held accountable for the group of boys. His recognition of this idea demonstrates his maturity, but also his longingShow MoreRelatedLord Of The Flies Rhetorical Analysis1214 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWilliam GoldingÃ¢â¬â¢s book Lord of the Flies focuses mainly on a group of boysÃ¢â¬â¢ who have been stranded on an uninhabited island where they face many problems with themselves and others. One of the many dilemmaÃ¢â¬â¢s within this story was the division of power between Ralph and Jack. They both had qualities of a leader, but they had different intentions with where they wanted to go; Jack was primarily the villain in this story showing savagery, while Ralph was civilized. So, why do the boysÃ¢â¬â¢ join someoneRead MoreMy First Day Of School917 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmore academic tone by being able to identify most instances of colloquialism through past mistakes. Exemplary of my skills that I have gained above, several of my essays show the progression of my skills as I have written more. In my first Lord of the Flies essay, I used colloquial phrases such as, Ã¢â¬Å"lo and behold,Ã¢â¬ and informal verbs such as Ã¢â¬Å"whisked.Ã¢â¬ Despite that, I began to recognize phrases and signs of colloquialism in my own writing, and in my most recent essay, the documentary project, IRead MoreThe Freedom Writers And Romeo And Juliet905 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswhich was the Hunger Games and wrote an essay on. We read many short stories and even wrote one ourselves. For english we read Lord Of the Flies and Of Mice and Men among other books were we would always have an easy question followed by an essay. In both of these classes helped me develop structure called tieac which stands for topic, intro to evidence, evidence, analysis, and conclusion. Both my freshmen teachers helped me develop this structure for my essays. Our essays had to be typed in 12 inchRead MoreBiblical Allusions in Lord of the Flies2536 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesexpressed though disobeying my parents- In the end, I got burned. Similarly, in Sir William GoldingÃ¢â¬â¢s Lord of the Flies, biblical allusions are used to give additional meaning and depth to the book and to show the ways in which humans transfer their inner evil into outward behavior. Evil doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t begin from the outside world; instead it begins in the core of human beings. The novel Lord of the Flies shows the breakdown of society without authority, a code of conduct, and failure to maintain moralityRead MoreStudy Guide Literary Terms7657 Words Ã |Ã 31 Pages AP Literary and Rhetorical Terms 1. 2. alliteration- Used for poetic effect, a repetition of the initial sounds of several words in a group. The following line from Robert Frosts poem Acquainted with the Night provides us with an example of alliteration,: I have stood still and stopped the sound of feet. The repetition of the s sound creates a sense of quiet, reinforcing the meaning of the line 3. allegory Ã¢â¬â Where every aspect of a story is representative, usually symbolicRead MoreThe Relationship Between Man and God Essay2522 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesspeaker in Ã¢â¬Å"Carrion ComfortÃ¢â¬ appears to be further influenced by this era of struggle in Gerard Manley Hopkins life. In Ã¢â¬Å"Carrion Comfort,Ã¢â¬ the relationship between God and man appears to be primarily antagonistic. However, upon greater analysis of the imagery, rhetorical devices, and structure of the poem, an alternate interpretation is revealed. The speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with God is characterized by his recognition of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s superiority and omnipotence, and the resulting struggle toward understandingRead MoreAlexander Pope Essay6204 Words Ã |Ã 25 Pagesfirst version in 1712, when Pope was only 23 years old, the poem served to forge his reputation as a poet and remains his most frequently studied work. The inspiration for the poem was an actual incident among Popes acquaintances in which Robert, Lord Petre, cut off a lock of Arabella Fermors hair, and the young peoples families fell into strife as a result. John Caryll, another member of this same circle of prominent Roman Catholics, asked Pope to write a light poem that would put the episodeRead MoreBlack Beauty2282 Wo rds Ã |Ã 10 Pagesits publication. Black Beauty was distributed not only by booksellers, but also by campaigners for the animal rights. This novel served as an instrument in changing the attitude of the people towards horses and other domestic animals as well. Analysis Anna Sewell used Physiological Psychology approach in her novel Black Beauty. Physiological Psychology is the study of biological basis of behavior and mental processes. She specifically employed Ivan PavlovÃ¢â¬â¢s Classical Conditioning and B.F. SkinnerÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreEssay Writing9260 Words Ã |Ã 38 Pagesopinion plays a significant role in the process. However, a certain objective standard needs to be maintained and, as in a persuasive essay, your assertions need to be proved. The formality of the review will be determined by how much of the essay is analysis, how much is summary, and how much is your reaction to the work you are reviewing. A more formal review will not only discuss the work on its own merits but also place it in context. Newspapers and popular magazines tend to review in terms of finance:Read MoreAmerican Literature11652 Words Ã |Ã 47 Pagespoetry? Good questions! This web page provides a quick overview of poetry analysis. Please note that this handout discusses the basics of poetry; there is much more to know about it than there is room to discuss here. Laurence Perrine s book LITERATURE: STRUCTURE, SOUND, AND SENSE can provide more detailed information about poetry analysis. Until you can get a copy of the book, I hope this page helps you begin your poetry analysis work. What is poetry ? Poetry goes beyond the rhyming of words. The
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Three days before I voluntarily resigned my position from Massage Green Spa, there was an incident that took place, which resulted in my lack of trust from the organization. When I was working for Massage Green Spa, I usually was one of the therapists that close on Sunday nights. Forty-five minutes prior to closing, I did not have a massage scheduled, so I decided to clean the bathrooms in preparation for closing. Halfway through the cleaning, I was interrupted by the receptionist to notify me that we had a last minute walk-inn. I expressed my frustration that the client will only have time for twenty-five minutes and I am not prepared to massage someone after just handling cleaning chemicals. I stopped what I was doing and went up front to explain to the client that I cannot do a full body massage in twenty-five minutes. The male client express that he did not care and that he would leave a nasty yelp review. I took the client back to the massage room and told him to lay face down u nder the sheets. When I entered the room to start the massage, the man was laying naked face up on top of the sheets. As I was getting him covered with a blanket, I stressed to him that he needs to remain covered and draped. Once I started the session, he made an attempt to grab and touch me inappropriately. I told him that the session is now over; this behavior is not okay at this establishment. I left the room and stormed upfront to tell the receptionist what had just happened. I immediatelyShow MoreRelatedServices Marketing Integrating Customer Focus Across the Firm5578 Words Ã |Ã 23 Pagesrefrigerators, dishwashers and microwaves is an example of a(n) _______.Ã A.Ã Service B.Ã Experience C.Ã Attribute D.Ã Good E.Ã Benefit Ã Difficulty: Easy Ã 3.Ã (p.Ã 4)Ã When Heather goes to the local gym, she has a personal trainer who helps make sure she is using the equipment correctly. The personal trainer is an example of a(n):Ã A.Ã Service B.Ã Experience C.Ã Attribute D.Ã Good E.Ã Benefit Ã Difficulty: Easy Ã 4.Ã (p.Ã 4)Ã Many people when they go on vacation are choosing to leave their dogs in posh pet resortsRead MoreCustomer Relationship Management16994 Words Ã |Ã 68 Pagesindividualize their marketing efforts. As a result, producers do not need those functions formerly performed by the middlemen. Even consumers are willing to undertake some of the responsibilities of direct ordering, personal merchandising, and product use related services with little help from the producers. 7 Customer Relationship Management Another force driving the adoption of CRM has been the Total quality movement. When theRead MoreGoodlife Fitness Essay12449 Words Ã |Ã 50 PagesCanada | International | Ontario, Canada | Child-minding Services | 6 months Ã¢â¬â 12 years | Infant Ã¢â¬â 6 years | 2 years Ã¢â¬â 11 years | Pool | Yes (11 locations) | Yes | Yes | Squash Courts | Yes | Yes | Yes | Fitness Classes | Yes | Yes | Yes | Personal Training | Yes | Yes | Yes | Basketball Courts | No | Yes | Yes | Sports Leagues | No | Leagues vary depending on location | Basketball and Volleyball leagues | 1-3: Current Customers Target Audiences The main target audience of GoodLifeRead MorePurpose of Evaluating Customer Service Policies26269 Words Ã |Ã 106 Pages(HK) Centre for Food Safety, Food and Environmental Hygiene Department ii Introduction to Hospitality Introduction A set of curriculum support package of tourism and hospitality learning and teaching materials is being developed by the Personal, Social and Humanities Education Section of Curriculum Development Institute, Education Bureau for the implementation of the senior secondary Tourism and Hospitality Studies curriculum in schools. The curriculum support package is comprised ofRead MorePurpose of Evaluating Customer Service Policies26276 Words Ã |Ã 106 PagesANTOR (HK) Centre for Food Safety, Food and Environmental Hygiene Department ii Introduction to Hospitality Introduction A set of curriculum support package of tourism and hospitality learning and teaching materials is being developed by the Personal, Social and Humanities Education Section of Curriculum Development Institute, Education Bureau for the implementation of the senior secondary Tourism and Hospitality Studies curriculum in schools. The curriculum support package is comprised of eightRead MoreHk Disney16299 Words Ã |Ã 66 Pagesrecommendations were formed based from the current 8Ps, secondary research materials and from the results of a UAI survey. In order to support the proposed service plan, this paper also includes investment plans, estimates of profitability (income statement) and an evaluation of results. II. Scope and Limitations In order to make this service marketing plan, the researchers conducted both primary and secondary research to gather relevant information. The secondary researchRead MoreCosmetic Industry Analysis28098 Words Ã |Ã 113 Pagescosmetic industry, since companies will put more effort and time in R D. They need to produce more product innovation which is different with their rivals so that they can attract more consumers. (http://www.firstresearch.com/Industry-Research/Personal-Care-Products Manufacturing.htm). The RD budget that spends by the major company in cosmetic industry Ã¢â¬â LÃ¢â¬â¢Oreal in 2006 had cost Ã¢â ¬ 533 millions. Even other competitors such as Shiseido also spend Ã¢â ¬119 millions during 2006. There isRead MoreLodging Inductry24737 Words Ã |Ã 99 Pagesindustries. The hospitality and travel industry combine to form the foundation for tourism. The Hong Kong airport alone will eventually be able to handle 87 million visitors per year. All will be traveling to and from Hong Kong for business and personal reasons that will involve many hospitality related businesses worldwide. Examples: hotels, restaurants, timeshare, casinos, airlines, cruise lines, car rental. Objective: 2. Define the role of marketing and discuss its core concepts. RecommendedRead MoreMarketing Management 14th Edition Test Bank Kotler Test Bank173911 Words Ã |Ã 696 PagesMarketing Management, 14e (Kotler/Keller) Chapter 1 Defining Marketing for the 21st Century 1) Which of the following statements about marketing is true? A) It is of little importance when products are standardized. B) It can help create jobs in the economy by increasing demand for goods and services. C) It helps to build a loyal customer base but has no impact on a firms intangible assets. D) It is more important for bigger organizations than smaller ones. E) It is seldom used by nonprofit
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
The United States Centers for Disease Control estimates that each year one in twenty hospital patients will contract a Healthcare Associated Infection (HAI). When further examined, the number of infected patients is approximately 1. 7 million per year resulting in nearly 99,000 deaths (CDC, 2011). Due to numbers like this, healthcare organizations, professional associations, and patient advocacy groups have all launched initiatives showing a universal response to this national healthcare priority. Chief among these initiatives was the collaboration between The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America and the Disease Society of America. The SHEA-IDSA joint publication on HAI prevention builds a professional foundation for healthcare facilities in the Unites States to mitigate the risk of HAI infected patients. The prevention strategies begin by identifying the most common HAIs, their causes, and detailing the both the human and financial costs associated with HAIs. Using this information, SHEA and ISDA created prevention strategies to combat each HAI. This essay will follow the SHEA-IDSA template by detailing information on the most common Healthcare Associated Infection and provide detailing prevention strategies. According to the United States Centers for Disease Control and the SHEA-IDSA report, the most common Healthcare Associated Infection are Central Line Associated Blood Stream Infections or CLABSI. With nearly 50% of all ICU patients requiring a central line, the amount of recorded CLABSI infections is extremely high. The research on CLABSI indicates the most common pathogens are Staphylococcus Aureus, Enterococci, and Candida. To better understand the nature of CLABSI incident and therefore employ prevention strategies one must understand the dynamic of a central line. The National Healthcare Safety Network defines a central line as Ã¢â¬Å"a catheter whose tip terminated in a great vesselÃ¢â¬ (IHI, 2011). The catheter on a central line punctures the skin, which by default makes bacterial and fungal infections possible. Once the infection has entered the body it can spread to the blood stream. The infection can then cause hemodynamic changes possibly causing death of a patient. Proof of an infection is found in the recovery of a pathogen from a blood culture from a patient who had a central line. For declarative purposes, a pathogen not commonly present on the skin must only be found in one culture whereas a pathogen commonly found on the skin must be detected in two or more cultures. In order to be confirmed as a central line infection, the central line must have been installed a minimum of two days prior to the development of the infection and there must be no other apparent source of the infection. Regarding the cost of Healthcare Associated Infections; both are indicators of the enormity of the problem. As mentioned earlier the 2010 CDC report titled Ã¢â¬Å"Preventing Healthcare-Associated InfectionsÃ¢â¬ stated 1. 7 million cases occur each year in the United States. According to the same report 99,000 cases result in death. The Institute for Healthcare Improvement estimates that of these 99,000 deaths, up to 4,000 are a direct result of bloodstream infections. The human cost dwarves the financial costs, which alone have a crippling effect on the healthcare industry. Reflecting on the Institute for Healthcare Improvement report, each CLABSI incident prolongs hospitalization on average of seven days. Each infection costs between $3,700 and $29,000. Having established the common CLABSI incidents, identifying the risk of infection, and examining the cost, it is time to move into prevention strategies. The Institute for Healthcare improvement established the industry standard for central line infection strategies in what are known as Care Bundles. Ã¢â¬Å"The IHI Ã¢â¬Å"Central Line Bundle is a group of evidence-based interventions for patients with intravascular central catheters that, when implemented together, result in better outcomes than when implemented individually. The five components of the bundle are proper hand hygiene, maximum barrier precautions, chlorhexidine skin antisepsis, optimal catheter site selection, and daily review of line necessity. The most basic step in CLABSI prevention is hand washing. (IHI, 4/23/2011) The IHI guidelines specify that healthcare professionals need to wash hands before and after catheter care, when dressings are changed, and the central lines are accessed. Furthermore patients should be taught when and how to properly wash hands. This education extends to family members ofÃ the patients. Along with basic hygiene, patients should also be taught to avoid handling or manipulating central lines. Emphasis on sterility and hygiene are reinforced in the second IHI guideline known as Maximum Barrier Precautions. The medical stuff is required to wear caps, masks, sterile gowns, and sterile glove when central lines are inserted. The patient must also be covered head to toe with a sterile drape except for a small opening at the catheter insertion site. (IHI, 4/30/2011) The third IHI precaution is Chlorohexidine. Studies indicate using Chlorohexidine for skin preparation prior to central line insertion or when changing dressings is more effective than other solutions such as povidone-iodine or alcohol. To properly cleanse the treatment area, Chlorohexidine must be applied for at least 30 seconds and the solution must dry completely before inserting a central line. The use of antiseptics like Chlorohexidine is not reserved just for patients. Studies have shown that coating or impregnating catheters with antiseptics have reduced the risk of infections. The overall benefits however are questionable when examining the practice from a cost benefit perspective. This is due to statistically insignificant differences in the rate of infections when using impregnated or non-impregnated catheters. (Lai, N. et al, 2013) The next precautions cited in the IHI bundle are optimal catheter site selection and daily central line review (IHI, 4/30/11-B). One key component of site selection is found in conducting a risk/benefit analysis. The treating physician is capable of such an analysis. In general the IHI guidelines suggest avoiding the femoral artery for central lines. When treating adult patients, they also suggest a preference to the subclavian site over a jugular site when using non-tunneled central lines. A daily review of a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s central line is also necessary. The risk of infection increases the longer a catheter is in place therefore a daily check must be conducted to ensure the line is still needed. A daily review will also facilitate the removal of un-needed lines. It is important to note that scheduling catheter removals or replacement at scheduled intervals, every three days for example, has not lowered the risk of infection. The key element missing in scheduled removals is the daily, in-person review. Implementation and compliance of IHI Bundle Precautions is multi-faceted requiring continuing education and revised staffing practices (NGC, 2013). Healthcare professionals must be trained in proper procedures for avoiding central line infections. Procedures include catheter insertion and maintenance. To ensure the guidelines are followed and the education is effective, each healthcare site should enact a compliance committee and empower the committee to conduct periodic reviews of central line procedures. Among the many precautions cited above the committee should create a central line checklist and make the checklist available to all staff members. Furthermore the committee can create a culture of central line safety by ensuring cleaning agents are prominently placed at all hand-washing stations, each supply chart stocked with chlorhexidine kits and other sterile items like masks and gloves. Physical compliance checks would also be in the purview of the committee and can be seen in the form of integrating daily central line checks with multidisciplinary rounds and requiring central line records showing the date and time of the line placement. The compliance committee will also be charged with reviewing the facilityÃ¢â¬â¢s staffing procedures. This is necessary because studies indicate the risk of patient central line infection increases when there is an elevated patient to nurse ratio. The studies have also indicated that the use of Ã¢â¬Å"pool nursesÃ¢â¬ in ICU settings contributes to increased risk of infection. Where IHI guidelines were introduced and adhered to, the number of CLABSI incidents dramatically decreased. For example, from 2001 to 2009 there was a 58% reduction which saved nearly $1. 8 billion in excess healthcare costs. This represents nearly 6,000 lives saved through proper protocols. When looking at two years in this range, 2008 and 2009, the reductions are impressive. For example, in 2008 there were approximately 37,000 cases of central line infections in patients receiving outpatient hemodialysis. In 2009 there were 23,000 cases among patients receiving inpatient treatment. While the number of cases in these areas is still high, the statistics reveal they are declining (CDC, 2011). The authors of this paper had the opportunity to complete their clinical hours at two different facilities; Banner Health Network and Dignity Network. The authors found that both facilities set a goal of completely eliminating CLABSI and created a culture to facilitate this goal. Aside form the overall improvement in patient care such a goal will be financially beneficial for the facilities. This is in large part due to changes in funding rules that state healthcare facilities will no longer be reimbursed for CVC associated bloodstream infections because they are considered to be largely preventable. Both facilities visited by the authors strictly adhere to the IHI central line bundle concept. Each of them also added new elements to make the bundle even more successful. For example, both sites use biopatch to prevent bacteria access at the site of a CVC insertion. They also instituted guidelines for routine dressing changes and cover the line hubs with alcohol-impregnated caps when lines are not in use. In addition, both facilities empower nurses to supervise the insertion procedure and stop the procedure if any steps are skipped. As covered previously, catheter-related bloodstream infections cause life threatening complications, increase morbidity, dramatically increase expenses and above all are largely preventable. Study after study on the issue proves that adherence to strict guidelines pertaining to central line treatment, like the IHI bundle, dramatically decreases the number of CLABSI incidents and the amount of money spent on treatment. Instituting and maintaining a culture focused on CLABSI prevention is necessary in all healthcare facilities. Such a culture not only fosters a safe treatment environment but also allows each healthcare professional to personally advocate for their patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ health and recovery.
Tuesday, April 7, 2020
Abstract This research paper establishes that the problem of substance abuse in the female sex is increasing in most parts of the world. The trend is worrying. Some of the policy changes discussed include the use of specialized care providers, provision of care in the society, and the establishment of more women-specific rehabilitation centers. Issues concerning the course and nature of substance abuse, addiction, recovery, and relapse among this population of female substance abusers have also been discussed.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Exploring the Substance Abuse Treatment Programs specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Various evidence-based approaches to treating substance abuse and addiction in various settings in the selected target population will be tackled in the research paper. The context of a changing health care environment for women substance abusers will also be highlighted. Important ther apies such as the nontraditional approaches of motivational therapy, solution-focused brief, and group therapies will take the center stage. SFGT emerges a futuristic treatment modality for women with substance abuse problems. Introduction Women are a special population of drug abusers. They provide a challenge to any group or individuals who are working towards their treatment. Like many states in the US, the state of Florida is one of the most affected with the problem of drug abuse among women. The impacts of substance abuse are relatively similar to those in the male population. However, this group of substance abusers also faces special challenges. Therefore, it is important to examine the impact of substance abuse on this population and its recovery at an individual (micro) and systems (macro) level. This research paper looks at substance abuse in women, evidence-based approaches to the provision of treatment services for them, and any historical and current policy issues that may have prevented or supported treatment-service delivery to this client group. Relevant Policy Issues Policies addressing the treatment of substance abuse in women with substance abuse problem have been developed from many research findings. The treatment of the special client group is mostly similar to the male colleagues, although there are few variations in the policies. Zarkin, Dunlap, and Homsi (2004) looked at some of the substance abuse services cost analysis programs (SASCAP) and some of the major policies in the management of substance abuse. Some of the policy changes include the allocation of scarce drug abuse treatment dollars (Zarkin, Dunlap, Homsi, 2004). A major policy is the establishment of the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT), which is responsible for the treatment of drug abusers. Grella and Greenwell (2004) and Cowan, Deering, Crowe, Sellman, Futterman-Collier, and Adamson (2003) report a considerable increase in the number of women abusing drugs i n the United States.Advertising Looking for research paper on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Grella and Greenwell (2004) noted that non-specialized and mixed gender individuals mostly managed the treatment programs that were in place. However, they were less likely to address the problems of this group of clients. Most of the women who abuse drugs are also treated as outpatients, hence corresponding to treatment for other groups of drug abusers. Some of the challenges include the existence of few facilities that are dedicated to the treatment of substance dependence in women only. As Grella and Greenwell (2004) state, the women-only providers were more concentrated in the residential facilities. Even though these facilities provide advanced care to the women who are known to be drug abusers, they make up only a small proportion of the treatment system. However, over the past few years, there has been growing attention to the treatment programs for the women drug abusers globally, especially in the US. Some of the policies that have positively affected funding of programs for treatment of women with the problem include the federal block grant, initiation of projects that are federally funded, and the Ã¢â¬Å"womenÃ¢â¬â¢s set-asideÃ¢â¬ (Grella, Greenwell, 2004, p. 378). The state of Florida has a treatment program for drug abusers. However, the number of women-specific facilities is still small. The program in place in this region is the Substance Abuse and Mental Health (SAMH) program, which operates within the Florida Department of Children and Families (DCF). It is the single-state authority on substance abuse and mental health (Substance Abuse, 2014). The region also has a treatment and referral system for drug abusers in accordance with the national policy on drug abuse. The US Department of Health and Human Services, specifically the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services AdministrationÃ¢â¬â¢s (SAMHSA), has a national drug and alcohol treatment referral service, which provides Spanish and English treatment programs for the residents for free and with assurance of confidentiality (Substance Abuse, 2014). Nature of Substance Abuse, Addiction, Recovery, and Relapse Substance abuse in women is a common problem as stated above, with millions being affected by the problem. The cause of the substance abuse is dependent on the individual factors and drug characteristics that the individual is abusing (Doweiko, 2008). Harmful drug abuse rarely occurs before teenage, with most of the abusers being over 15 years (McCollum, Trepper, Smock, 2003). The disorder or habit begins to increase with the increasing age, with a described peak being witnessed in the early 20s (Berg, Miller, 1992). In one of the population studies in the US, the prevalence of alcohol dependence was reported at 2% in people aged 12 to 17 years. The incidence was higher in 18- to 20Ã¢â¬â year-olds, standing at 12% (Grant, Stinson, Dawson, 2004a). The prevalence of dependence and abuse for the other groups that are older than 20 years is relatively smaller. It decreases with increased age.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Exploring the Substance Abuse Treatment Programs specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Addiction and substance dependence among women substance abusers takes a course that is similar to other groups of dependence. Large proportions of women that are dependent in their 20s will remit later in their life, with some remaining addicted into their later ages (Thoits, 2010). Most of the women who remain dependent and addicted to the substances will develop a more chronic course (Cowan et al., 2003). They are likely to experience physical and psychological conditions that are associated with the condition. Women with limited social support and stability including being unemployed , without family, and housing are more likely to remain addicted for longer, with their recovery being dependent on these factors (Weiss, Griffin, Mirin, 1992). Stressful life experiences are a contributor to the problem of drug abuse among women since it influences the treatment course (Taylor, Biswas, Vaughn, 2012; Minkoff, 2013). Recovery among the population of women who are drug abusers is better in relation to their male counterparts since most of the drug abusers that seek help are the women group (Berg, Miller, 1992). The cases of relapse with treatment are common, especially in people who have abused the substance for long. One third of the treated cases of drug abuse are the women who are known to relapse in a 10-year period. A few of them continue to have the drug abuse problem for life (Russell, Gockel, 2005). Therefore, the treatment of drug abuse for the women group is dependent on the social support among other factors. Moreover, the recovery of women drug abusers is a function of factors such as social support, pre-morbid personality, and the environment in which they are located (Ruger, Abdalla, Luekens, Cottler, 2012). Women have a better recovery from drug abuse compared to their male counterparts. The understanding of this situation is due to the wider support they have and the ease of seeking help. The average period of recovery according to Berg and Miller (1992) is 3 years. However, this period varies among individuals. Relapse is common in women drug abusers. One third of those who undergo treatment are known to relapse. The treatment of patients without elimination of the predisposing conditions causes them to relapse to their previous state. The chances of treatment after relapse are considered to reduce. Women drug abusers who experience relapse mostly end up abusing drugs for life (Berg, Miller, 1992). The treatment of women drug abusers who relapse is different from first-time patients. Evidence-Based Treatment Approaches Evi dence-based substance abuse treatment approaches for the women population have undergone a change over the last few decades. Many studies have been conducted on the most effective methods of treatment, with their findings informing the approaches (Emmelkamp, Vedel, 2006).Advertising Looking for research paper on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Straussner (2012) is one of the researchers who looked at the evidence-based treatment modalities for substance abuse and the changes that this plan has undergone in history. The researcher states that one useful tool in the diagnosis and management of substance abuse is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSMIV-TR), which has been useful in the management of all genders of substance abusers (Straussner, 2012). Treatment of substance abuse is mainly approached as an outpatient and inpatient approach. Rehabilitation is a major trend presently and in the past. Detoxification has largely been used, with substitution therapies being applied to treat the drug substance abusers (Straussner, 2012). Pharmacotherapy has been applied in most of the treatment modalities. In the treatment for alcohol dependence, some of the medications used include disulfuram and naltrexone (Straussner, 2012). Acamprosate is also a medication that has been tried with varying degrees of ef ficiency in reducing alcohol abuse in the general population and in women. Behavioral therapies constitute the other evidence-based method of treating substance abuse in women. They have been used successfully in most of the patients in combination with other therapies (Straussner, 2012). According to Straussner (2012, p. 129), Ã¢â¬Å"Behavioral therapies help people engage in the treatment and recovery process, provide incentives to remain abstinent, modify their attitudes and behaviors related to substance abuse, and increase skills to handle stress and environmental cues that may trigger craving for AOD.Ã¢â¬ Cognitive behavior therapy is another method that is widely used in the management of substance use disorders in women. The technique teaches the affected persons on how to control their thoughts and modify the maladaptive beliefs and cognitive distortions that may be pushing them to the drug abuse (Straussner, 2012). Motivational enhancement therapy and the Twelve Step Fa cilitation Therapy (TSF) are widely applied therapies that form the basis of Alcoholic Anonymous and their treatment of substance abuse (Straussner, 2012). Harm reduction is another of the models that have been used in the management of substance abuse. It originated in Europe with the adoption in the US in the late 80s to prevent the transmission of HIV among substance abusers (Straussner, 2012). Family-focused treatments have also been found to be important in the management of substance abusers. Current Substance Abuse Treatment System Traditionally, the treatment of substance abuse in the female population of patients was similar to that of male patients. Evidence provided in this essay, especially in the reviewed literature, suggests that the treatment of this special group of clients is mainly effective if they are treated in their own specialized facility (Knight, Logan, Simpson, 2001). The researchers state, Ã¢â¬Å"clients who receive services targeted toward their specific needs are more likely to complete treatment and that they have better outcomes at follow-upÃ¢â¬ (Knight, Logan, Simpson, 2001, p. 11). Specialized facilities for the provision of treatment for women that are known drug abusers have increased, with an on-going training for more specialists who will cater for the individual needs of this class of patients in this changing environment. The current management of substance abuse is more focused on the institution of care at the community level, with patients being managed at their homes and in the society. The measures are more effective in the current management of substance abuse in women, as it incorporates some of the social stressors that may be contributing to their substance abuse (Berg, Miller, 1992; Mott Gysin, 2003). In the changing environment of care for groups with special needs, women with substance abuse problems are more affected by changes in the health context. The current substance abuse treatment system is also focused on influencing the psychiatric and social effects of the substance abuse, with a wide use of group therapies as discussed below. Group Therapies Heather (2005) explored addictions in the context of being disorders in motivation. He suggested that motivational therapy is an effective measure in management. According to Heather (2005), the use of motivational interviewing presents a good way of dealing with addiction. The previous trials and use of the same have proved to be effective. Motivational therapy is done to patients to encourage and motivate them to relinquish their substance abuse habits. They are first motivated to have a change in attitude. Motivational enhancement therapy has been used in the management of alcohol abuse disorder with considerable success in combination with other therapies. The treatment modalities that are combined with motivational therapy require the patient to be motivated to proceed with any treatment, and thus the increased efficiency and efficacy (Berg, Miller, 1992). Smock, Trepper, Wetchler, McCollum, Ray, and Pierce (2008) looked at the efficacy of the solution-focused group therapy in the management of substance use disorders. The efficacy of the SFGT was remarkable in the study. Treatment of the drug abusers was successful in most of the instances in the study (Smock et al., 2008). However, the research was focused on the treatment of substance abuse in level-1 substance abusers. Patients who received either SFGT or the traditional treatment approach were reported to improve on either treatment (Smock et al., 2008). Nonetheless, significant improvement was noted in patients who were treated using the SFGT. The researchers concluded that the treatment of substance abuse in patients who are known substance abusers has to take that approach (Smock et al., 2008). The approach of using SFGT, which is a resiliency-based approach, is gaining popularity among clinicians treating substance abuse in health facilities. T he approach provides a feasible method of treatment of the same in any women-specific treatment programs. The popularity in the use also means that clinicians have faith in the method and that they have documented improved outcomes with treatment. The modalities will likely enhance treatment in the current health care environment, with more patients receiving direct care. Group therapies are more concerned with the treatment of individuals with similar conditions. They are tailor-made to the needs of the unique groups. Very few group therapies deal with the treatment of women who are diagnosed with substance abuse disorders. There should be more attempts to increase the number of women receiving this specialized care (Berg, Miller, 1992). The above-discussed modalities in the treatment of substance abuse in women might enhance the current health care environment. The insurance coverage for women drug abusers is a significant part of the changing health environment. Many organizatio ns offer insurance coverage for such patients. This accessibility reduces the cost of treatment for women drug abusers. Patients that are not already insured should be put in the insurance programs to reduce their treatment costs. It is important to note that most organizations involved in the treatment of women drug abusers charge for these services. This observation is one of the factors that cause those affected not to seek treatment. In the state of Florida, the number of women drug abusers is significantly dropping. This finding can be attributed to the rise of many organizations offering women-specific rehabilitation services. Conclusion and Recommendations In conclusion, the course and nature of substance abuse, addiction, recovery, and relapse among this population of women substance abusers has also been discussed. Various evidence-based approaches to treating substance abuse and addiction in various settings in the selected target population have also been discussed. Recom mendations in the management of substance abuse disorder in women are possible from the above research. The future management of the problem needs to be taken in the social setting of patients to ensure that the problems causing them to engage in substance abuse are tackled. The research establishes that poor social support for the patients often ends up complicating their management, with most of patients with poor support structures ending up with relapse. The management also needs to take a more specialized approach where structures are set to ensure that the facilities taking care of women with substance abuse disorders are treated by a specialized team of practitioners. The client group has established special needs that may be overlooked by the general practitioners who handle other needs in the society. The other recommendation is that there needs to be education that is more consistent to the public on the effects of substance abuse, with special focus on the specific effect s that the client group may experience. The education needs to be in the form of campaigns where the bodies established to deal with the problem of drug abuse constantly engage in the reduction of the main predisposing factors to the problem. The other recommendation is that treatment modalities discussed in the paper such as SFGT should be widely applied in the management of women who are drug abusers. The use of these modalities will lead to increased success in the management of patients since they present a better success rate. There is also need to carry out more research on the best methods of intervention for this group since there are more knowledge gaps, with the issue continuing to dominate in many parts of the world. Reference List Berg, K., Miller, S. (1992). Working with the Problem Drinker: A Solution-Focused Approach. New York, NY: W. W. Norton. Cowan, L., Deering, D., Crowe, M., Sellman, D., Futterman-Collier, A., Adamson, S. (2003). Alcohol and drug treatment for women: CliniciansÃ¢â¬â¢ beliefs and practice. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 12(1), 48-55. Doweiko, E. (2008). Concepts of Chemical Dependency. London: Cengage Learning. Emmelkamp, M., Vedel, E. (2006). Evidence-based treatment for alcohol and drug abuse: A practitionerÃ¢â¬â¢s guide to theory, methods, and practice. New York, NY: Routledge. Grant, F., Stinson, S., Dawson, A. (2004a). Prevalence and co-occurrence of substance use disorders and independent mood and anxiety disorders: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61(1), 807Ã¢â¬â816. Grella, C., Greenwell, L. (2004). Substance Abuse Treatment for Women: Changes in the Settings Where Women Received Treatment and Types of Services, Journal of Behavioral Health Services Research, 31(4), 367-383. Heather, N. (2005). Motivational interviewing: Is it all our clients need? Addiction Research and Theory, 13(1), 1-18. Knight, D., Logan , S., Simpson, D. (2001). Predictors of program completion for women in residential substance abuse treatment. Am. J. Drug Alcohol Abuse, 27(1), 1-18. McCollum, E., Trepper, T., Smock, S. (2003). Solution-Focused Group Therapy for Substance Abuse: Extending Competency-Based Models. Journal of Family Psychotherapy, 14(4), 27-42. Minkoff, K. (2013, April 19). Treating Comorbid Psychiatric Substance Use Disorder. Psychiatric Times, pp. 1-10. Mott, S., Gysin, T. (2003). Post-Modern Ideas in Substance Abuse Treatment. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 3(3), 3-19. Ruger, J., Abdalla, A., Luekens, J., Cottler, L. (2012). Cost-Effectiveness of Peer-Delivered Interventions for Cocaine and Alcohol Abuse among Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial. PLoS One, 7(3), 1-12. Russell, M., Gockel, A. (2005). Recovery Processes in a Treatment Program for Women. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 5(4), 27-45. Smock, S., Trepper, T., Wetchler, J., McCollum, E., Ray, R., Pierce, K. (2008). Solution-Focused Group Therapy for Level 1 Substance Abusers. Journal of marital and family therapy, 34(1), 107-120. Straussner, A. (2012). Clinical Treatment of Substance Abusers: Past, Present and Future. Clin Soc Work J, 40(1), 127-133. Taylor, D., Biswas, B., Vaughn, M. 2012). Incremental Validity of Stressful Life Experiences in Predicting Psychiatric Comorbidity Among Women in Substance Abuse Treatment Rebecca. Journal of Social Service Research, 38(1), 382Ã¢â¬â391. Thoits, A. (2010). Stress and health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 51(1), S41Ã¢â¬âS53. Weiss, D., Griffin, L., Mirin, M. (1992). Drug abuse as self-medication for depression: An empirical study. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 18(2), 121Ã¢â¬â129. Zarkin, A., Dunlap, J., Homsi, G. (2004). The substance abuse services cost analysis program (SASCAP): a new method for estimating drug treatment services costs. Evaluation and Program Planning, 27(1), 35Ã¢â¬â 43. This research paper on Exploring the Substance Abuse Treatment Programs was written and submitted by user Braxton House to help you with your own studies. 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Monday, March 9, 2020
METAPHYSICS Whereas sciences deal with particular kinds of beings, metaphysics is concerned with beings as such. According to Aristotle, there is no such thing as mere being; to be is always to be a substance or object, a quantity, a quality, or a member of some other basic category. I. Substance and Accidents Substance is the primary mode of being according to Aristotle. The world is not one of atoms or particles, even though they have a place in the world. The basic notion of AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s logic reflects a distinction in the way reality is structured and reflects the basic way that we view reality. Substance is whatever is a natural kind of thing and exists in its own right. Examples are rocks, trees, animals and the like. For instance, a dog is basically the same whether it is black or brown. A dog would be substance because it exists in its own right; it does not exist in something else, the way a color does. Accidents are the modifications that substance undergoes, but that does not change the kind of thing that each substance is. Accidents only exist when they are the accidents of some substance. For Aristotle, there are ten categories into which things naturally fall. They are substance and a total of nine accidents: quantity, quality, relation, action, passion, time, place, disposition (the arrangement of parts) and Ã¢â¬Å"rainmentÃ¢â¬ (whether a thing is dressed or armed, etc) All of these distinctions are basically logical, but in a sense they reflect the structure of reality. One never finds any substance that we experience without some accidents, or an accident that is not the accident of a substance. II. Matter and Form Aristotle utilized the concept of matter and form in an entirely new way, stating that everything that becomes consists of a foundation, a substratum (that which forms the foundation), and form. AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s theory was firmly rooted in his broader metaphysics, according to which all things are a combination of m... Free Essays on Meep Free Essays on Meep METAPHYSICS Whereas sciences deal with particular kinds of beings, metaphysics is concerned with beings as such. According to Aristotle, there is no such thing as mere being; to be is always to be a substance or object, a quantity, a quality, or a member of some other basic category. I. Substance and Accidents Substance is the primary mode of being according to Aristotle. The world is not one of atoms or particles, even though they have a place in the world. The basic notion of AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s logic reflects a distinction in the way reality is structured and reflects the basic way that we view reality. Substance is whatever is a natural kind of thing and exists in its own right. Examples are rocks, trees, animals and the like. For instance, a dog is basically the same whether it is black or brown. A dog would be substance because it exists in its own right; it does not exist in something else, the way a color does. Accidents are the modifications that substance undergoes, but that does not change the kind of thing that each substance is. Accidents only exist when they are the accidents of some substance. For Aristotle, there are ten categories into which things naturally fall. They are substance and a total of nine accidents: quantity, quality, relation, action, passion, time, place, disposition (the arrangement of parts) and Ã¢â¬Å"rainmentÃ¢â¬ (whether a thing is dressed or armed, etc) All of these distinctions are basically logical, but in a sense they reflect the structure of reality. One never finds any substance that we experience without some accidents, or an accident that is not the accident of a substance. II. Matter and Form Aristotle utilized the concept of matter and form in an entirely new way, stating that everything that becomes consists of a foundation, a substratum (that which forms the foundation), and form. AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s theory was firmly rooted in his broader metaphysics, according to which all things are a combination of m...
Friday, February 21, 2020
Perception Dependence Argument - Essay Example For instance, by stating that X=Y and Y=Z, it implies that X=Z. This is an example of logical arguments. However, there are arguments that are based on incorrect principles of logics, leading to logical fallacies and false or illogical conclusions. One type of argument that has attracted a lot of debates and controversy with regards to the truth about its premises and inferences/conclusions is perception-dependent argument. This paper thus evaluates whether the premises of the perception-Dependent Argument are true. In addition, the paper explores whether the argumentÃ¢â¬â¢s inference are good. Perception Dependent Arguments The awareness or apprehension of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s environment through senses such as sight, touch, hearing, smell, taste is referred to as perception, a study area that has continued to intrigue not only philosophers but also other scholars since historical times2. One reason perception-dependent arguments have always been considered fallacious is the problem creat ed by the association of perception with hallucinations and illusions. Both hallucination and illusion refer to situations in which a person perceives objects in ways that in which they do not exist. Thus, the possibilities of errors occasioned by illusions and hallucinations make the true nature of arguments based on perception questionable. Because of illusion- and hallucination-related errors, arguments, their premises and inferences, always based on perception, lead to questions on whether perceptions are intuitively what they appear to be. Perceptions could therefore not be directly linked to reality and neither are they necessarily the immediate access to reality. The possibility of hallucination and illusion errors in perception dependent arguments therefore challenges the logical nature of arguments based on perceptions. Illusion refers to a situation in which an object or subject is perceived to appear in way other than it really is. For instance, using a yellow light in a house with white walls make the walls appear have yellow color. Another example of illusion is the sour taste of a sweet drink if consumed immediately after consuming a sweeter drink. It should however be noted that illusion does not imply there is deception since one is not deceived into believing that objects are not what they are. In other words, there is a possibility that one may actually be aware that he/she is experiencing an illusion. From the illusion and hallucination errors that perception dependent arguments are prone to, it is imperative that the obvious truth of peoplesÃ¢â¬â¢ experiences and the perception-related errors in arguments are reconciled. The perceptual experiences otherwise referred to as openness to the world, which lead to true premises and good inferences in arguments, have been consistently challenged by the existence of illusions and hallucinations. From its definition, it is apparent that basing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments on illusion will most likely re sult in false premises and bad conclusions/inferences. Arguments based on perceptions (illusions and hallucinations) always occur through certain steps. When one is under illusion, an object appears to have some characteristic or quality F. In reality, the object under view, feel, taste, or touch does not always have the perceived quality. Interestingly, another object encountered or experienced somewhere by the person under illusion possesses the quality/feature F perceived by the person. In